با توجه به شروع ماه محرم و ایام شهادت امام حسین علیه السلام ویارانشان خواندن این مطلب را پیشنهاد می کنم
WHO IS IMAM HUSSAIN?
WHO IS YAZID?
ORIGINS OF DEVIATION
o a large scale
This survey of the unique
revolution of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.) is analytical in essence. The
purpose of this essay is to give a qualitative rather than quantitative
account. It has dealt with the causes, policy and results of this
eternal revolution. This is done in the hope of unveiling the startling
aspects of the revolution's message, which is often neglected in its
In being confronted with
this event, many questions need to be answered. First, why did this
revolution take place? What were its implications and procedures? And
what were its conclusive results? The answers may provide a guiding
light on which people would formulate their judgments. Although the
following account is only a person's viewpoint which is not necessarily
the complete answer. Nevertheless, it is based on the most popular and
trustworthy authorities on the subject.
The answers of the above
questions are by no means easy, because they involve analysis of the
prevailing conditions before and after the revolution. Indeed
comprehensive answers would require volumes in order that one may be
satisfied. Not to mention the stormy and turbulent events of the time,
which add substantial difficulties in the way of objective research
To understand Imam
Hussain's personality and the collective culture of the society, a
summary of Islam's view of life is necessary.
THE ISLAMIC MESSAGE
Islam is a philosophy of
life. It gives reasons and a set purpose for living. Furthermore, it
defines the best ways to secure progress and happiness. This is done by
elevating the spiritual side and satisfying the material needs of
Islam considers man as a
viceroy of God on earth. This status is a fine one, but it is also
critical for the requirements must be satisfied. Thus, he is in an
envied position, and consequently his acts and behavior are expected to
conform with the high level he is occupying.
The Islamic concepts and
laws are inseparable parts of the Islamic ideology. They are the
practical expression of Islam in society and life in general. These
concepts and laws are essentially concerned with harmonizing people's
relationships among themselves, with other beings, and above all with
The basic Islamic outlook
to this life is that of an introductory course. This worldly life is
viewed as a prelude to another eternal life. Therefore, this world is a
preparatory stage for people in order to attain the spiritual level,
which permits them to enter Paradise. The other side of the picture is
the horror of Hell for people who misuse the powers at their disposal.
Hence, success and failure are not measured with this worldly or
materialistic supremacy. The Islamic measure differs from materialistic
standard by accounting for the life hereafter. The satisfaction of God
is the sublime aim, which surpasses all other inclinations and wishes.
This is by no account neglecting materialistic supremacy, but putting
it in its rightful place. It is with the satisfaction of God that
Muslims seek materialistic supremacy.
WHO IS IMAM HUSSAIN?
Imam Hussain's life and
status in the Islamic history are formidable. Indeed, it is not of
obscurity but because of the vitality and the significance of his
contributions. The following account is only a very brief record of his
He was one of two sons of
Imam Ali and Fatimah, the daughter of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.t.). His
father, Imam Ali, needs no introduction. The least known of him as to
be acknowledged by the far and near and by his foes and admirers. He
was openly declared by the Prophet as the Commander of the faithful's.
Needless to mention his knowledge, bravery, steadfastness, brotherhood
to the Prophet, justice and piety.
Fatimah was the dearest
daughter to her father (p.b.u.t.). Al-Turmudhi narrated through Usamah
ibn Zaid that the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said, "The dearest member of my
family to me is Fatimah". She was declared by the Prophet as the master
of all women in the whole world. She and her husband were members of
the family who were signified for their qualities and roles. They are
examples of interest to Muslims, men and women. Their role was an
extension of the Prophet's role in the sense of leading the great
cultural transformation from the darkness of an infidel's culture to
the brightness of heavenly light.
Historians recorded the
birth of Imam Hussain as an exciting event for the Muslims at Madina
and especially to the Prophet of God. He was even concerned with the
name given to his grandson, 'Hussain'. And the news flared up in the
sky, the Muslims congratulated each other for the new child whom the
Prophet considered as his own son. Thus the Prophet once declared,
"Hussain is of myself and I am of Hussain. O, God be pleased with those
who please Hussain". This statement was not accidental or the result of
emotional strains as it is wrongly claimed sometimes. This declaration
came from a responsible wise leader, the Prophet of God who would never
commit a mistake during the performance of his Prophetic task. He was
delivering the Islamic Message and informing people of those who will
act as springs and guardians for this Message in the future. Emotions
and sentiments are not loose in a Muslim's life, but are controlled by
Islamic concepts and ideals. There is always a criterion for like and
dislike which evolves from the deeply rooted Islamic concepts. Although
Abu Lahab was the Uncle of the Prophet, his infidelity made him cursed
till the Day of Judgment. The Prophet of God made another statement,
which leaves no doubt of Imam Hasan's and Imam Hussain's role. He
(p.b.u.h.) said, "Hasan and Hussain are the masters of youth in
Paradise". This was presented as a credential to the Muslim nation in
order to hold firm to their leaders.
At a certain time the
Muslims at Madina felt the Islamic Message's glory and good results. So
that they intended to reward the Prophet for his effort in guiding
them. The gift they presented to the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was some gold,
which they had collected. The Prophets answer came in the following
verses, which were revealed during this incident. "Say: 'No reward do I
ask of you for this except being kind to those of kin" (23/42).
AI-Kashaaf narrated that when this verse was revealed, people asked the
Prophet "O Prophet of God, who are these of kin which this verse makes
their respect obligatory upon us?" The Prophet answered, "They are Ali,
Fatimah, and their two sons". However, this did not imply disrespect
for other Muslims, companions or the rest of kin to him. Looking
objectively at the message of the verse it will indicate first of all
reluctance to accept material reward. If a reward was not suitable then
it cannot be restricted to material only. Hence, the verse was
indicating respect to some specific people, not because they are his
relatives as such. But the real reason behind this respect was to
safeguard the Islamic Message. The role they assumed to play in the
Islamic history required such respect in order to enable them to
perform their task.
Al-Hakim narrated through
Abu Saaid Al-Khidri that the Prophet said, "He who dislikes us, we the
family, God will place him in Hell". This implies those who dislike
Islamic conduct and life.
Jabir narrated that the
Prophet in his speech after performing the last pilgrimage, said, "O
people I am leaving the book of God and my family (Itrah) for guidance.
If you hold fast to them, surely you will never go astray". This Hadith
was narrated through some twenty different sources of trusted chains of
narrators. Muslim in his Sahih quoted some of them.
Another striking Hadith
obtained through Abu Dhar where he quoted the Prophet saying, "O
people, let my family act as a head of a body of you, and as eyes of a
head among you".
The last few Hadiths are
impressive in many respects. First they were narrated by different
sources of different inclinations which add to them extra weight.
Secondly the same content of all indicates the consistency of the event.
Imam Hussain as already
stated, was one member of the family of the Prophet. He was brought up
in the Prophetic guidance where he received the direct concern of the
Prophet. The ideal atmosphere where he had grown up with his
grandfather, father, mother and elder brother was the highest level
Thus he acquired wisdom,
generosity, bravery, and piety. He occupied outstanding posts during
his father's reign in the Islamic State. During the terror and
corruption which swept the Muslim World at the hands of the Umayads, he
was the sole hope of the Muslims to restore the establishment of the
Islamic laws which would bring them prosperity, peace and happiness of
the two worlds. He never failed the Muslims, but acted as expected of a
great ideological leader and discharged his duty to the best.
WHO IS YAZID?
Yazid was the son of
Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan, from the family of Umayyah, one of Quraish's
families. Abu Sufyan was acting as the chief adversary in the infidel's
campaign against Islam. Muawiya's mother, Hind, ate the liver of Hamza,
the Uncle of the Prophet because of her burning hatred and beast hood.
Muawiya too was an active opponent to Islam. Indeed, Abu Sufyan's
family was performing the strategic, financial and boosting morale in
the infidel's campaign against the Muslims. Their efforts, wealth and
diplomacy were of great burden on preventing the spread of Islam among
Time had lapsed and Mecca
was suddenly besieged with enormous forces of the Muslims. The
unbelievers at Mecca were struck with seeing the Muslim fighters who
had caught them unprepared. Thus, the infidels had no choice but to
abandon their arrogance, which had prevented them from accepting God's
sovereignty. During this incident, historians recorded some peculiar
stories about Abu Safyan's family. However, there is one thing certain
that they accepted Islam unwillingly, and they were treated in a
special way for that. For instance, they were given extra donations in
order to gain their hearts towards Islam. But whether this generosity
had any influence to produce a change in their materialistic thinking
is a different matter. Indeed subsequent events revealed no change in
their way of thinking and life.
Yazid was brought up in a
family whose atmosphere was electrified with emotions of its dead who
fought Islam. Besides seeing those Muslims who killed them receiving
full honor and respect by the whole society. Not to mention the wasted
wealth, injured pride and stripped privileges of their family. However,
Yazid had some unique qualities in the adverse sense. He was known as a
playboy during his youth. Historians recorded him being drunk,
committing adultery and in general leading a very corrupt life. Some
even quoted Yazid saying, "The family of Hashim staged a play to get a
Kingdom. Actually there was neither news from God nor a revelation".
Even if we discarded this extreme, there is no escape from facing the
rest of his shameful deeds and horrifying crimes. Not to mention his
illegal claim to rule the Muslim World, or misusing Muslim's money, or
intrusion upon people's dignity and lives.
ORIGINS OF DEVIATION
did Muawiya ascend the ruling stage, and even dare claiming the
succession of the Prophet? What happened to the Muslim World to be
silent at the assumption of power by an ignoble person like Yazid?
Indeed, it is astonishing to witness the indifference and
irresponsibility shown by the vast majority of Muslims. Islamic values
and ideals were as if totally alien to the society. What has happened
to the dynamic forces, which had awakened the world? The Prophet's
voice had not yet died away regarding the responsibility of Muslims. He
once said, "He who sees a cruel governor, violating God's laws,
breaking His Covenant, acting in contract to the Tradition of the
Prophet, doing mischief and intruding upon people's rights, then does
not try to change that governor through action or speech, God has
promised him a suitable place in Hell".
all may wonder over the causes of deviation, which led to this
deplorable situation. We know for sure that Islam is a perfect and
practical religion. Islam is no doubt assured of guiding the Muslims to
a stable and prosperous life. However, the question of deficiency in
the Islamic Massage, or the way it was conducted by the Prophet
(p.b.u.h.) has no place. Therefore, the only possible errors are
confined to the subsequent status of the Muslims, their handling of
affairs, and their conformity to the Islamic laws; besides the natural
obstacles encountered in the sequence of events.
topic is so large that it cannot be dealt with in this short review.
Nevertheless, it is inevitable to have a few glances at it. It is well
known that the Islamic State extended its borders to vast areas
embracing huge populations. The short time of conquest made its
cultural assimilation near to impossible. Besides the language
difficulties and primitive means of communications and propagation.
Many Arab tribes had even fought against Islam after the Prophet's
departure to the next world, who were under the political influence of
is needless to say that any real and thorough cultural transformation
needs time as a basic factor. A complete transition from one culture to
another might require generations before the new culture is firmly
established. The second factor in determining any cultural change is
the presence of the ideological leadership. The kind of leadership,
which has a deep insight into the message and potentially ready to
sacrifice for its success. Naturally, the ideological leader is
expected to conform by the message's orders otherwise, the aim of his
presence would not be realized.
Muslims had elected Abu Bakr as the successor to the Prophet. The
confused moves and events, which accompanied the procedure of election,
was sadly recorded by all historians. This is by no means an objection
to or doubting the ability of a respected companion in the category of
Abu Bakr (may God be pleased with him): But careful observation lead to
the conclusion that Abu Bakr himself remarked that there were other
people who were more able than himself for the task.
is indeed eye-catching in Islamic history the many incidents and
Hadiths which encourage Muslims to follow and proclaim the leadership
of Imam Ali after the Prophet. For instance, in Tafseer Abi Ishaq Ahmad
ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al-Nisabouri Al-Thaalabi who died in 337 A.H.
gave a commentary on the following verse:
guardians are God, His Prophet, and the believers who pray and give
alms while prostrate to God. Regarding those who disobey God, His
Prophet and the believers, the party of God are the victors " (5:58,59)
He quoted Abu Dhar Al-Ghifari stating, "I heard the Prophet (p.b.u.h.)
With these ears or would be deaf, and saw him with these eyes or would
be blind;" the Prophet once said, "Ali is the leader of the best
believers, and the killer of unbelievers, victor who supports him, and
weak who doesn't " Abu Dhar added, One day we were praying with the
Prophet, a beggar had entered the mosque. The beggar was requesting
people for help but none helped him except Imam Ali. While Imam Ali was
offering his prayer, he donated his silver ring by pointing his finger
to the poor man and the latter took it filled with joy. After this
incident the Prophet prayed humbly to God and said, "O God, my brother
Moses asked You, O my God, expand my breast; ease my task for me; and
remove the impediment from my speech, so that they may understand what
I say; and give me a Minister from my family, Aaron, my brother; add
to-my strength through him, and make him share my task, that we
thy praise without stint, and remember thee without stint. And You
answered: 'Granted is thy prayer, O Moses'. "O God I am your servant
and Prophet. Expand my breast; ease my task; and give me a Minister
from my family, Ali, my brother; add to my strength through him, and
make him share my task". Abu Dhar concluded: "By, God, as soon as the
Prophet completed his prayer the trustworthy Gabriel came with the
following verses: "Your guardians are God, His Prophet and the
believers who pray and give alms while prostrate to God . . .!" (5:58,
59). Ibn Sinan narrated this incident in Sahih AI Bukhari. Ibn Abbas
narrated this story in Asbab Al-Nizol by Imam Wahidi. All interpreters
of Kanz AI-Umaal held the same opinion of the cause of the revelation
of this verse.
different occasions, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) told Imam Ali, "You are to
me as Aaron was to Moses, but there is not Prophet after me".
consistency of narrations leave no room for doubt that Imam Ali was
chosen by God and His Prophet to be the ideological leader after the
Prophet's departure. A noteworthy point is the number and variety of
people who confirmed the authenticity of these stories. Perhaps the
most outstanding occasion, which sank into people's memories, is the
Prophet's speech during his last pilgrimage. In a large congregation of
Muslims he declared, "He whoever I am his master, Ali is his master
too. O God assist whoever supports him and disgrace those who have
enmity towards him". Indeed, these are only a few quotations, which
Imam Ali had from God and the Prophet.
it can be safely concluded that Imam Ali's exclusion from his assigned
duty marked the first major mistake. The inevitable consequences were a
slow deviation, which ended up in a turbulent stream of events, which
no one was able to exercise control over.
Bakr's reign lasted two years or so, which was an eventful epoch. The
dangers besieging the Muslims were so great that the very existence of
the Muslim community was put between two brackets. But that danger was
eliminated by the many sacrifices of Muslims in lives and substance.
ibn Al-Khattab was appointed by Abu Bakr as the Caliph, and the former
ruled for ten years. His reign is particularly important because of the
vast changes and events, which took place during his time. The conquest
of vast areas brought enormous wealth to the Muslims. But the way this
wealth was handled had created complex problems, which forced Umar to
admit their grave consequences. Indeed, he tried to reform the laws but
it was too late to act for he was murdered. Umar ibn Al-Khattab was the
first person in charge of Muslim affairs to start uneven donation of
rations among Muslims.
used to prefer some people to others for various reasons, which
generated social classes and sparked off enmities and rifts in the
Muslim society. The laws were not in conformity with the Tradition of
the Prophet or even with Abu Bakr's procedure. Umar was sad when he saw
the unrest and rifts in the Muslim community and declared, "I was
informed that people have distinct gatherings. When two sit together
they talk of the different groupings and separate entities. By God that
is harmful to your religion, honor and unity". Realizing the causes of
this social phenomenon he added, "I used to allure people in order to
gain their goodwill by preferring some to others. But if I lived this
year, the distribution of wealth will be even among all people as the
Prophet end Abu Bakr used to do."
rather serious measure taken by the Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab was his
appointment of six nominees to the Caliphate post. This, it is believed
had induced a desire in every one of the nominees to ascend one day to
this powerful and honorable position. Thus it was a matter of time for
everyone and they were engaged in preparing the ground for their ascent.
ibn Affan was chosen by Abdul Rahman ibn Auf to be the next Caliph,
after being turned down by Imam Ali. Imam Ali refused to accept the
Caliphate post because Abdul Rahman ibn Auf put a condition, which
meant retaining the status quo and preventing any radical change.
vast majority of Muslims resented Uthman's policies. His monetary
policy was the focus point of resentment, because he donated large
amounts of money to his relatives while the rest of the people were
left empty handed ( Muroj Al-dhahab 2/241 by Al-Masaudi Al-Ansab and
Al-Ashraf [5/25, 28,48,52] by Al-Baladhiri). Indeed, the governors who
were assisting in administering the country had neither ability nor
piety. It is believed that they were appointed because they were of kin
to him. For instance, Al-Waleed ibn Aqabah ibn Abi Muaeet was appointed
to govern Kofah. Al-Waleed was reputed to be a drunkard and people were
very dissatisfied with his behavior. People's pressure was tremendous
that Uthman had to yield and finally replaced him by another one. The
new governor was Saaid ibn AI-As who had the famous statement "Iraq is
Quraish's garden, we take or leave of it whatever we like" (Muroj
Al-dhahab 2/346 by Al-Masaudi). Muawiya was governing Damascus and
Jordan during the reign of Umar, Uthman added to his state Hams,
Palestine, and Jazera. Egypt's governor was Abdullah ibn Abi Sirah. All
the previous governors are Uthman's relatives.
most striking feature of this bunch of rulers was their contempt for
people's rights and dignity. They simply looked at the whole Muslim
country as their private property, as it is shown in Al-Waleed's
the principal treasury at Madina was not utilized in its rightful ways.
Many Muslims like the treasurer's trust, Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Dhar and
similar distinguished companions objected strongly against Uthman's
monetary policies. Uthman's reply to those people was, "We take from
the treasury whatever we want in spite of some people's objections".
policies were not only foreign to Islamic conduct and ideals but caused
tremendous sufferings and hardships to the majority of Muslims.
Responsible Muslims played their role in warning Uthman against these
deviations but their advice was in vain. Thus, the situation reached
its danger point one day and exploded which resulted in Uthman's
murder. This act of violence as I believe could have been avoided by
using some peaceful method.
chaotic conditions and the deterioration of the Muslims material and
social status forced them to rethink their past, present and future.
Perhaps it was like a film passing in their minds, reminding them of
events which were connected with their presence. It is normally the
last incident and last speech, which remain alive in people's memories.
Indeed, it was the Prophet's famous speech in Khum during his last
pilgrimage, which was recalled. Muslims remembered that significant
event where there were more than one hundred thousand Muslims present
and the Prophet went briefing the Islamic message to them. In the
middle of that anxious crowd, listening carefully to every word i.e.
(p.b.u.h.) uttered, and watching every sign he made. The Prophet took
Ali ibn Talib's hand and raised it while saying "O, people whoever I am
his master, then Ali is his master too. O, God, assist those who
support him and disgrace those who do not".
the Muslims found their way out suddenly after the cloud of events
disappeared. They hurriedly went to Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) calling him to
perform his assigned duty. But the abnormal situations existing at the
time did not make his task easy. Indeed, the very acceptance of his
duty during such situations was not healthy. Imam Ali's reply to the
Muslims was negative. He (p.b.u.h.) said, "Leave me aside and seek
someone else". We are heading at a subject which has many facets and
various colors, neither the hearts would rise to, nor the minds would
be firm upon. The horizons are black and gloomy while reason is
rejected. You should know that my acceptance means what I know will be
applied and obeyed. I shall not conform to one's ideas or listen to
others rapprochement. On the other hand, leaving me aside means I am
one of you, listening and conforming to whom you have appointed for
your affairs. "I am better a minister than commander for you". In this
speech, perhaps, he (p.b.u.h.) wanted to gauge people's interests and
determination. Moreover, he showed his disinterest for power and ruling
if that means an aim by itself. But the vast majority of Muslims were
determined to see the Prophet's words and will implemented. They left
no choice to Imam Ali but to accept his rightful role of being the
ideological leader to the Muslim community.
IMAM ALI'S REFORM
The major problems, which
were confronted at the time, were the existence of a corrupt and
incompetent administration, unjust social privileges, and wide
financial gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, Imam Ali's reforms
covered these three major fields.
1. Administration: All
previous governors were instantly expelled from their posts. And the
following people were put in charge, Uthman ibn Haneef for Basrah, Sahl
ibn Haneef for Syria, Qais ibn Saad ibn Ubadah for Egypt, and Mousa
Al-Ashari for Kofah. It is noteworthy that all the mentioned governors
were not from Quraish tribe. This was bitterly taken by Quraish who
were accustomed to rule and get the lion share of money and authority.
It is not out of place to mention that the new governors were not only
known for their piety and good conduct, but possessed sound
administrative abilities. However, it must be taken into account that
the conditions in which they were operating and the unstable situation
of that period gave them no chance to manifest fully their talents.
But, still the marks, which they left in the society, were so deep that
they survived and remembered for generations.
2. Protection of Rights:
The rights of Muslims whether social or financial were carefully
observed and protected. Thus Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) declared "O people, I
have the same rights and obligation as the rest of you" Therefore, he
cut the way of every intruder who wanted to exploit his position or
kinship or religious reputation. Imam Ali again stated, "It should be
known that whoever is an immigrant (Muhajir) or a supporter (from
Ansar) who accompanied the Prophet (p.b.u.h.), and think he is better
than others for his companionship, then his goodness will be rewarded
by God in the Hereafter. Every person who believes in God and His
Prophet is entitled to the same rights and obligations. Money belongs
to God, which must be divided equally among people. No-one will get a
greater share than others, those pious people would get their reward in
3. Fiscal and Monetary
Policy: The extravagant monetary policy of Uthman which accumulated the
wealth among his relatives and associates, had seriously imbalanced the
society. However, Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) had to take some drastic measures
against the existing unnatural imbalance in the society. Thus he warned
all people, "I shall follow the Prophet's Tradition and execute
whatever he had commanded, hence, every gift which Uthman gave, or
God's money which he donated will be returned to the treasury. Nothing
will cancel its belonging to the treasury even if it was married with,
or distributed in the wide country. Justice must be implemented. If
someone feels hard to accept justice then injustice is harder to
Moreover, he condemned
prodigals who run after the pleasures of this life only while
disguising in religious masks. In this respect Imam Ali said, "There
are some people whom life has absorbed completely. They have built many
houses, made rivers, rode beautiful horses, and took to themselves
slave women, which brought disgrace upon them. Whenever I prevent them
from indulging in bad deeds and give them no more than their rights,
they turn angry and object furiously. They say, "Ali ibn Abi Talib has
prevented us our rights".
However these new
policies irritated the Quraishite. They no longer enjoyed their garden
of Iraq and the rest of the Muslim country. Even what they have already
gained was endangered of restoration to the Muslims treasury.
Therefore, Imam All's policies were aiming at stripping them completely
of their social privileges, financial status and authority. Quraish was
not pleased with the new regime and worked continuously to hinder the
stabilization of the new authority. Dissents and wars were launched
successively shaking the whole State, economically, socially,
politically and morally. Meanwhile, the poles of Quraish who were
campaigning against Imam Ali's rule, realized that they were fighting
Islam again. It was not Imam Ali as a person they were fighting, but it
was the ideals and policies, which he (p.b.u.h.) had advocated. Thus
the Umayyads who accepted Islam under various conditions but belief
found that their materialistic thinking cannot reconcile with Islamic
values. Hence, they decided to distort Islamic values and ideals, since
opposing Islam openly was fatal, as they had experienced previously. So
Muawiya had ordered the formation of a committee to fabricate Hadiths
and distort the interpretation of Quran.
Five years had lapsed
which were full of violent events. The camel's war in Basrah, Siffin
war against Muawiya, Nahrawan war against Khawarij, and many other
campaigns, which were continuously on the move. Thus the opposition was
able to feed unrest practically in every part of the Islamic State,
which shook the authority of the new administration.
Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) was
murdered at Kofah mosque, and Muawiya was given access to rule the
whole country. The circumstances in which Muawiya assumed power will be
The following points are the main features of his rule:
1. Authority: Muawiya
assumed authority by sheer force. He did not hide this fact and put it
plainly in his address at Kofah. He said, "O people of Kofah, do you
think I fought you to establish prayers or giving alms (Zakat) or
perform pilgrimage?" He continued, "I know you pray, pay alms, and
perform pilgrimage. Indeed, I fought you in order to command you with
contempt, and God has given me that against your wishes. You must be
certain that whoever has killed any of us, and then he will be killed.
And the contract between us of amnesty is under these feet of mine".
2. Terrorism: Muawiya's
rule was terror in the whole Muslim land. This terrorism was spread by
sending many convoys in various regions of the country. It was narrated
that Muawiya summoned Sufyan ibn Auf AI-Ghamidi, one of his army
commanders, and said, "This Army is under your command, proceed along
the river Euphrates till Heet. Any resistance in the way should be
crushed, and then invade Anbar. After that penetrate deep into Madaain.
O Sufyan, these invasions will frighten the Iraqis and please those who
like us. Such campaigns would attract frightened people to our side.
Kill whoever having different opinions from ours, loot their villages
and demolish their houses. Indeed, the War against money is similar to
killing but is more painful to their hearts".
Another commander, Basar
ibn Artat, was summoned and ordered to proceed towards Hijaz and Yemen.
Muawiya instructed him, "Proceed to Madina and expel its people,
Meanwhile, people in the way who are not from our camp should be
terrorized. When you enter Madina, let it appear as if you are going to
kill them. Make it appear that your aim is to exterminate them. Then
pardon them. Terrorize the people around Mecca and Madina and scatter
3. Islamic Concepts and
Laws: During Muawiya's reign even basic human rights were denied to
people. No one is free to express his opinion. Spies were employed to
terrorize people, besides the army and police who spared no opportunity
to crush people and silence their voices. There are some documents,
which reveal Muawiya's instructions to his governors. For instance, the
following letter was addressed to all judges. "Do not accept the
witness of Ali's followers or his descendents in courts". Another
letter stated "If you have evidence that some person likes Ali and his
family, then omit his name from the rations of Zakat". Another letter
continued, "Punish whoever is suspected to follow Ali and bring his
house down". Such was the situation of Muawiya's rule. Historians who
were recording these waves of terror described them as unprecedented in
history. People were so frightened that they did not mind being called
atheists, thieves, but not followers of Imam Ali.
Another facet of
Muawiya's rule was the discrimination between Arabs and non-Arabs. It
is an established fact that non-Arabs during Muawiya's reign were
treated as third class citizens. Although they embraced Islam but still
had to pay Kharaj and Jizyah! Non-Arab soldiers in the state armies
used to fight for bare subsistence level. Once a dispute between an
Arab and a non-Arab was presented to a court. The Judge was Abdullah
ibn Amir. During the procedure, the non-Arab sadly remarked to his
opponent. "May God does not multiply people of your kind" (meaning
Arabs). The Arab answered him light heartedly. "O God, increase their
population among us"(meaning non-Arabs). People who were present asked
the Arab in a state of bewilderment "How do you pray for their increase
while he prays for your decease?" The Arab answered, "Yes indeed, they
clean our streets, make shoes for our animals, and weave our clothes".
Perhaps the most
dangerous mischief, which Muawiya had embarked upon, was the
fabrication of Hadiths. When he was facing Imam Ali (p.b.u.h) as an
adversary, he found his case a hopeless one. His past was dark and
shameful, while that of Imam Ali was glorious and shining. In order to
sustain his campaign and boast his followers, Muawiya had to attract
some weak character companions, and employed them to fabricate Hadiths.
Naturally, his aim was to boast his campaign, challenge adversaries,
and legalize his claim to rule. Muawiya's order was not to let any
Hadith or incident in favor of Imam Ali but to fabricate a similar one
and attribute it to Uthman, Umar and Abu Bakr. The second phase of this
psychological warfare was to put Hadiths in Muawiya's favor. The third
phase was to silence people and keep them calm at what he did whether
in wronging Muslims or his violation of Islamic laws.
This trend of fabrication
of Hadiths, was constituting a grave danger to the integrity of Islam.
Hadith is considered as the second source of Islamic legislation after
Quran. Therefore, it was very important to divert this danger. The
exposition of this trend to the Muslims at large was very vital. This
was done by disgracing those who embarked upon this terrible mischief
and nurtured it. Thus, Imam Hussain's revolution as I can see it.
Few samples of the
fabricated Hadiths are the following. Through Abu Hurairah, the Prophet
said "God has trusted three for his revelation: myself, Jabriel and
Muawiya ". I wonder what God was doing for the revelation when Muawiya
was part of the infidel's camp. Again, Abu Hurairah narrated that the
Prophet had given Muawiya an arrow and told him "Take this arrow until
we meet in Paradise". What a lucky arrow to enter Paradise.
Abdullah ibn Umar claimed
that the Prophet said "You will see greed after me, and things which
you would disagree with" People asked "O Prophet of God, then what do
you order us?" The Prophet said, "Do the governor's right and ask God
for yours". Another fabricated Hadith said to be narrated by Abdullah
ibn Umar "Endure what you do not like of your governors, because if you
separate from the group (Jamaa) one foot and then died, you would have
died as an unbeliever".
These fabricated Hadiths
are not only principally contradicting the Quran and other verified
Hadiths but are calling Muslims to be slaves of their rulers. This was
exactly what the Ummayad's were aiming at.
4. Appointing Yazid:
Muawiya was not ruling as an individual, but was representing a way of
thinking different in nature from that of Islam. However, he was not
content to leave the ruling stage without making sure that it was
properly looked after. His pragmatic and materialistic mind drove him
to prepare the crowning of his son, Yazid. Although he made many
promises that he would not contemplate installing Yazid. The conditions
at the time were not suitable because still there were Muslims who were
politically conscious and wanted to see the restoration of Islamic laws
and values. Hence, Muawiya had a difficult job to perform before
leaving this world. Indeed, he tried his best far buying allegiance to
his son of Army commanders, chiefs of tribes and distinguished
personalities. But, his efforts failed with many, and he left general
instructions of the way to deal with them.